How To Setup NFS Server on CentOS 7 for vCloud Director v10 Appliance

Blog Date: 10/25/2019

For the purposes of this demonstration, I will be configuring NFS services on a CentOS 7 VM, deployed to a vSphere 6.7 U3 homelab environment.

NFS Server VM Configuration

Host Name: cb01-nfs01
IP Address: 10.0.0.35
CPU: 2
RAM: 4GB

Disk 1: 20GB – Linux installation (thin provisioned)
Disk 2: 100GB – Will be used for the vCD NFS share (thin provisioned)

Configure the vCD NFS share disk

For this demonstration, I have chosen not to configure Disk 2 that was added to the VM. Therefore, this “how-to” assumes that a new disk has been added to the VM, and the NFS server has been powered on after.

1) Open a secure shell to the NFS server. I have switched to the root account.
2) On my NFS server, the new disk will be “/dev/sdb”, if you are unsure run the following command to identify the new disk on yours:

fdisk -l

3) We need to format the newly added disk. In my case /dev/sdb. So run the following command:

fdisk /dev/sdb

4) Next with the fdisk utility, we need to partition the drive. I used the following sequence:
(for new partition) : n
(for primary partition) : p
(default 1) : enter
(default first sector) : enter
(default last sector) : enter

5) Before saving the partition, we need to change it to ‘Linux LVM’ from its current format ‘Linux’. We’ll first use the option ‘t’ to change the partition type, then use the hex code ‘8e’ to change it to Linux LVM like so:

Once you see “Command (m for help):” type ‘w’ to save the config.

Create a ‘Physical Volume, Volume Group and Logical Volume

6) Now that the partition is prepared on the new disk, we can go ahead and create the physical volume with the following command:

# pvcreate /dev/sdb1

7) Now we to create a volume group. You can name it whatever suites your naming standards. For this demonstration, I’ve created a volume group named vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director using /dev/sdb1, using the following command:

# vgcreate vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director /dev/sdb1

Creating a volume group allows us the possibility of adding other devices to expand storage capacity when needed.

8) When it comes to creating logical volumes (LV), the distribution of space must take into consideration both current and future needs. It is considered good practice to name each logical volume according to its intended use.
– In this example I’ll create one LV named vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director using all the space.
– The -n option is used to indicate a name for the LV, whereas -l (lowercase L) is used to indicate a percentage of the remaining space in the container VG.
The full command used looks like:
# lvcreate -n vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director -l 100%FREE vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director

9) Before a logical volume can be used, we need to create a filesystem on top of it. I’ve used ext4 since it allows us both to increase and reduce the size of the LV.
The command used looks like:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director/vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director

Writing the filesystem will take some time to complete. Once successful you will be returned to the command prompt.

Mounting the Logical Volume on Boot

10) Next, create a mount point for the LV. This will be used later on for the NFS share. The command looks like:

# mkdir -p /nfsshare/vcloud_director

11) To better identify a logical volume we will need to find out what its UUID (a non-changing attribute that uniquely identifies a formatted storage device) is. The command looks like:

# blkid /dev/vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director/vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director

In this example, the UUID is: UUID=2aced5a0-226e-4d36-948a-7985c71ae9e3

12) Now edit the /etc/fstab and add the disk using the UUID obtained in the previous step.

# vi /etc/fstab

In this example, the entry would look like:

UUID=2aced5a0-226e-4d36-948a-7985c71ae9e3 /nfsshare/vcloud_director ext4 defaults 0 0

Save the change with: wq

13) Mount the new LV with the following command:

# mount -a

To see that it was successfully mounted, use the following command similar to:

# mount | grep nfsshare

Assign Permissions to the NFS Share

14) According to the Preparing the Transfer Server Storage section of the vCloud DIrector 10.0 guide, you must ensure that its permissions and ownership are 750 and root:root .

Setting the permissions on the NFS share would look similar to:

# chmod -R 750 /nfsshare/vcloud_director

Setting the ownership would look similar to:

# chown root:root /nfsshare/vcloud_director

Install the NFS Server Utilities

15) Install the below package for NFS server using the yum command:

# yum install -y nfs-utils

16) Once the packages are installed, enable and start NFS services:

# systemctl enable nfs-server rpcbind

# systemctl start nfs-server rpcbind

16) Modify /etc/exports file to make an entry for the directory /nfsshare/vcloud_director .

– According to the Preparing the Transfer Server Storage guide, the method for allowing read-write access to the shared location for two cells named vcd-cell1-IP and vcd-cell2-IP is the no_root_squash method.

# vi /etc/exports

17) For this demonstration, my vCD appliance IP is 10.0.0.38, so I add the following:

/nfsshare/vcloud_director 10.0.0.38(rw,sync,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)

– There must be no space between each cell IP address and its immediate following left parenthesis in the export line. If the NFS server reboots while the cells are writing data to the shared location, the use of the sync option in the export configuration prevents data corruption in the shared location. The use of the no_subtree_check option in the export configuration improves reliability when a subdirectory of a file system is exported.
– As this is only a lab, I only have a single vCD appliance for testing. If a proper production deployment, add additional lines for each appliance IP.

18) Each server in the vCloud Director server group must be allowed to mount the NFS share by inspecting the export list for the NFS export. You export the mount by running exportfs -a to export all NFS shares. To re-export use exportfs -r.

# exportfs -a

– Validate NFS daemons are running on the server by using rpcinfo -p localhost or service nfs status. NFS daemons must be running on the server.

# rpcinfo -p localhost

or

# service nfs status

Configure the Firewall

19) We need to configure the firewall on the NFS server to allow NFS client to access the NFS share. To do that, run the following commands on the NFS server.

# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service mountd

# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service rpc-bind
# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service nfs
# firewall-cmd --reload

20) That’s it. Now we can deploy the vCloud Director 10.0 appliance(s).

Optional NFS Share Testing

I highly recommend testing the NFS share before continuing with the vCloud DIrector 10.0 appliance deployment. For my testing, I have deployed a temporary CentOS 7 VM, with the same hostname and IP address as my first vCD appliance. I have installed nfs-utils on my test VM.
# yum install -y nfs-utils

OT-1) Check the NFS shares available on the NFS server by running the following command on the test VM. change the IP and share here to your NFS server.

# showmount -e 10.0.0.35

As you can see, my mount on my NFS server is showing one exported list for 10.0.0.38, my only vCD appliance

OT-2) Create a directory on NFS test VM to mount the NFS share /nfsshare/vcloud_director which we have created on the NFS server.

# mkdir -p /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director

OT-3) Use below command to mount the NFS share /nfsshare/vcloud_director from NFS server 10.0.0.35 in /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director on NFS test VM.

# mount 10.0.0.35:/nfsshare/vcloud_director /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director

OT-4) Verify the mounted share on the NFS test VM using mount command.

# mount | grep nfsshare

You can also use the df -hT command to check the mounted NFS share.

# df -hT

OT-5) Next we’ll create a file on the mounted directory to verify the read and write access on NFS share. IMPORTANT** during the vCD appliance deployment, it is expected that this directory is empty, else it could make the deployment fail. Remember to cleanup after the test.

# touch /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director/test

OT-6) Verify the test file exists by using the following command:

# ls -l /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director/

OT-7) Clean your room. Cleanup the directory so that it is ready for the vCD deployment.

# rm /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director/test

After successfully testing the share, we now know that we can write to that directory from the vCD appliance IP address, and that we can remove files.




In my next post, I will cover deploying the vCloud Director 10.0 appliance. Stay tuned!

New Release – PowerCLI 11.5.0

New Release – PowerCLI 11.5.0

The days are ticking away until VMworld Europe, but we have some exciting news that we just couldn’t keep quiet about! PowerCLI version 11.5.0 is here and it is a huge release! More than 20 cmdlets have been added. There are new properties available for the objects we all know and love, one of which […] The post New Release – PowerCLI 11.5.0 appeared first on VMware PowerCLI Blog.


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vSphere 6.0 Reaches End Of General Support…

vSphere 6.0 Reaches End Of General Support (EOGS) in March 2020

vSphere 6.0 Reaches End Of General Support…

We would like to remind you that the End of General Support (EOGS) for vSphere 6.0 and the below listed products is March 12, 2020. This includes the following releases: vCenter Server 6.0 vCenter Update Manager 6.0 ESXi 6.0 Site Recovery Manager 6.0 and 6.1 vSAN 6.0, 6.1 and 6.2 vSphere Data Protection 6.0 and The post vSphere 6.0 Reaches End Of General Support (EOGS) in March 2020 appeared first on VMware vSphere Blog.


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VMware Fusion 11.5 Available Now!

VMware Fusion 11.5 Available Now!

VMware Fusion 11.5 Available Now!

It’s with great pleasure that we announce the immediate availability of VMware Fusion 11.5! Download here! Still on Fusion 10 or 8.5? Upgrade here! Release notes This release comes as a free upgrade to existing Fusion 11 users, with Fusion 8.5 and v10 customers being still eligible for discount upgrade pricing. This release also extends […] The post VMware Fusion 11.5 Available Now! appeared first on VMware Fusion Blog.


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Workstation 15.5 Pro and Player Available Now!

Workstation 15.5 Pro and Player Available Now!

Workstation 15.5 Pro and Player Available Now!

It is with great pleasure that we are able to announce the immediate availability of VMware Workstation 15.5 Pro and Player! Our major release this year comes as a free upgrade for existing version 15 customers, with upgrade discounts available for v12 and v14 customers. Release Notes Workstation Pro: Direct Windows download ::: Direct […] The post Workstation 15.5 Pro and Player Available Now! appeared first on VMware Workstation Zealot.


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Key Takeaways from VMworld US 2019 in San Francisco.

Looking back on this past week, all I can say is that it was pretty crazy. It was my first time to San Francisco, and I honestly left with mixed feelings on the City.

VMworld itself was pretty good! VMware cut back the general sessions to just two days (Monday and Tuesday), and I am honestly conflicted about the missing Thursday general session, as they usually showcase some non VMware related tech for this session.

If I could sum up VMworld in just one word this year, it would be: Kubernetes

Image result for kubernetes meme

VMware debuted their cloud management solution VMware Tanzu with partnership with Pivital, and showcased the ability to manage multiple Kubernetes clusters across multiple clouds, all from one central management dashboard, and Project Pacific, VMware’s endeavor to embed Kubernetes into vSphere.

VMware also added the Odyssey competition this year just outside of the Hands on Labs area. This was in the HOL style, however this only gave attendees hints on what needed to be completed, and really allowed you to test your knowledge and skills in order to complete the task, without the hand holding that the typical HOL provides. Teams were able to compete against each other for the best times, and had some pretty decent prizes.

All in all, it was a decent VMworld, and they will be returning to San Francisco next year. I can’t say that I enjoyed the location, especially with the homeless problem San Francisco has, and I would much rather see VMworld bring it’s 20k+ attendees to a cleaner city, without the drugs, pan handlers, and human waste on the streets. You’d think that as someone who grew up on a farm, and is used to certain sights and smells, that it wouldn’t have bothered me so much, but this took me by surprise

This was also a special VMworld for me this year, as I was finally able to meet Pat Gelsinger. I can tell he really likes the community, and would love to stay longer and chat with everyone. I certainly would have loved the chance to talk with him longer, but I know he had other obligations that night.

The vExpert party was fun as always, and we were able to get a nice photo of the group.

The last session I attended this year was “If this then that for vSphere – the power of event-driven automation” with keynote speakers William Lam, and Michael Gasch. Several well known VMware employees and bloggers were in attendance, including Alan Renouf, who was two chairs down from me, and for this first time I felt this crippling awkwardness of wanting to take pictures with all of them, but was so star stuck that I couldn’t bring myself to it. I know these guys are just normal folks who just happen to be stars in the vCommunity, but I had to contain myself, and enjoy the keynote. Hopefully our paths will cross again, and I can personally meet them.

VMworld General Session, Day 2, Tuesday August 27th, 2019: VMware Tanzu demos, and new CTO announcement!

Day 3 of VMworld 2019 in San Francisco is underway, and it is the second day of General sessions. Clearly today’s theme is Kubernetes, and VMware’s Ray O’Farrell kicked off the keynote by talking about VMware Tanzu and Tanzu’s mission control.

The Keynote then included the integration of NSX-T with Tanzu. The ability to test changes, to see the impact on the environment before going live, was truly amazing

There was also an interesting demo with VMware Horizon and Workspace ONE, showcasing the usage deploying work spaces rapidly from the cloud, and creating zero-trust security policy withing workspace ONE with Carbon Black

Pat jumped up on stage to announce that Ray O’Ferrell (@ray_ofarrell) would be leading VMware’s cloud native apps division, and Greg Lavender (@GregL_VMware) was named the New CTO of VMware.

VMware also announced a limited edition t-shirt that would be given away later that day. VMware had roughly 1000 of these shirts made up, and luckily I was able to get a shirt before they ran out.

Plenty of people were upset about not getting a shirt due to the limited run. Gives a whole new meaning to nerd rage…. (sorry I couldn’t help myself).

VMworld General Session, Day 1, Monday August 26th, 2019: VMware Tanzu, and Project Pacific.

The start of VMworld 2019 in San Francisco is underway, and Pat kicked off the general session talking about his excitement for being back in San Francisco, while poking fun at us “Vegas lovers”. Pat also talked about technology, our digital lives, and technologies role being a force for good. He talked about charities, and cancer research foundations.

Pat Then talked about The Law of Unintended Consequences, and how technology has advanced, we as a society have given up certain aspects of Privacy, the need to combat disinformation at scale available widely on the social media platforms.

Surprisingly, according to Pat, Bitcoin is Bad and contributes to the climate crisis.

First Major Announcement with Kubernetes, as VMware has been focussing on containers

Pat then announced the creation of VMware Tanzu, which is the initiative to have a common platform that allows developers to build modern apps, run enterprise Kubernetes, and platform to manage Kubernetes for developers and IT..

Second Major Announcement, Project Pacific. An ambitious project to unite vSphere and Kubernetes for the future of modern IT

Interestingly, Project Pacific was announced to be 30% faster than a traditional Linux VM, and 8% faster than solutions running on bare metal.

Project Pacific brings Kubernetes to the VMware Community, and will be offered by 20K+ Partner resellers, 4K+ Service providers and 1,100+ technology partners.

Tanzu also comes with mission control, a centralized tool allowing IT Operations to manage Kubernetes for developers and IT.

From VMworld: Introducing Project Pacific!

Introducing Project Pacific

From VMworld: Introducing Project Pacific!

Today VMware announced Project Pacific, what I believe to be the biggest evolution of vSphere in easily the last decade. Simply put, we are rearchitecting vSphere to deeply integrate and embed Kubernetes. Project Pacific evolves vSphere to be a native Kubernetes platform. What’s driving this shift? Fundamentally it goes to what constitutes a modern application. The post Introducing Project Pacific appeared first on VMware vSphere Blog.


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