How To Setup NFS Server on CentOS 7 for vCloud Director v10 Appliance

Blog Date: 10/25/2019

For the purposes of this demonstration, I will be configuring NFS services on a CentOS 7 VM, deployed to a vSphere 6.7 U3 homelab environment.

NFS Server VM Configuration

Host Name: cb01-nfs01
IP Address: 10.0.0.35
CPU: 2
RAM: 4GB

Disk 1: 20GB – Linux installation (thin provisioned)
Disk 2: 100GB – Will be used for the vCD NFS share (thin provisioned)

Configure the vCD NFS share disk

For this demonstration, I have chosen not to configure Disk 2 that was added to the VM. Therefore, this “how-to” assumes that a new disk has been added to the VM, and the NFS server has been powered on after.

1) Open a secure shell to the NFS server. I have switched to the root account.
2) On my NFS server, the new disk will be “/dev/sdb”, if you are unsure run the following command to identify the new disk on yours:

fdisk -l

3) We need to format the newly added disk. In my case /dev/sdb. So run the following command:

fdisk /dev/sdb

4) Next with the fdisk utility, we need to partition the drive. I used the following sequence:
(for new partition) : n
(for primary partition) : p
(default 1) : enter
(default first sector) : enter
(default last sector) : enter

5) Before saving the partition, we need to change it to ‘Linux LVM’ from its current format ‘Linux’. We’ll first use the option ‘t’ to change the partition type, then use the hex code ‘8e’ to change it to Linux LVM like so:

Once you see “Command (m for help):” type ‘w’ to save the config.

Create a ‘Physical Volume, Volume Group and Logical Volume

6) Now that the partition is prepared on the new disk, we can go ahead and create the physical volume with the following command:

# pvcreate /dev/sdb1

7) Now we to create a volume group. You can name it whatever suites your naming standards. For this demonstration, I’ve created a volume group named vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director using /dev/sdb1, using the following command:

# vgcreate vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director /dev/sdb1

Creating a volume group allows us the possibility of adding other devices to expand storage capacity when needed.

8) When it comes to creating logical volumes (LV), the distribution of space must take into consideration both current and future needs. It is considered good practice to name each logical volume according to its intended use.
– In this example I’ll create one LV named vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director using all the space.
– The -n option is used to indicate a name for the LV, whereas -l (lowercase L) is used to indicate a percentage of the remaining space in the container VG.
The full command used looks like:
# lvcreate -n vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director -l 100%FREE vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director

9) Before a logical volume can be used, we need to create a filesystem on top of it. I’ve used ext4 since it allows us both to increase and reduce the size of the LV.
The command used looks like:

# mkfs.ext4 /dev/vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director/vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director

Writing the filesystem will take some time to complete. Once successful you will be returned to the command prompt.

Mounting the Logical Volume on Boot

10) Next, create a mount point for the LV. This will be used later on for the NFS share. The command looks like:

# mkdir -p /nfsshare/vcloud_director

11) To better identify a logical volume we will need to find out what its UUID (a non-changing attribute that uniquely identifies a formatted storage device) is. The command looks like:

# blkid /dev/vg_nfsshare_vcloud_director/vol_nfsshare_vcloud_director

In this example, the UUID is: UUID=2aced5a0-226e-4d36-948a-7985c71ae9e3

12) Now edit the /etc/fstab and add the disk using the UUID obtained in the previous step.

# vi /etc/fstab

In this example, the entry would look like:

UUID=2aced5a0-226e-4d36-948a-7985c71ae9e3 /nfsshare/vcloud_director ext4 defaults 0 0

Save the change with: wq

13) Mount the new LV with the following command:

# mount -a

To see that it was successfully mounted, use the following command similar to:

# mount | grep nfsshare

Assign Permissions to the NFS Share

14) According to the Preparing the Transfer Server Storage section of the vCloud DIrector 10.0 guide, you must ensure that its permissions and ownership are 750 and root:root .

Setting the permissions on the NFS share would look similar to:

# chmod -R 750 /nfsshare/vcloud_director

Setting the ownership would look similar to:

# chown root:root /nfsshare/vcloud_director

Install the NFS Server Utilities

15) Install the below package for NFS server using the yum command:

# yum install -y nfs-utils

16) Once the packages are installed, enable and start NFS services:

# systemctl enable nfs-server rpcbind

# systemctl start nfs-server rpcbind

16) Modify /etc/exports file to make an entry for the directory /nfsshare/vcloud_director .

– According to the Preparing the Transfer Server Storage guide, the method for allowing read-write access to the shared location for two cells named vcd-cell1-IP and vcd-cell2-IP is the no_root_squash method.

# vi /etc/exports

17) For this demonstration, my vCD appliance IP is 10.0.0.38, so I add the following:

/nfsshare/vcloud_director 10.0.0.38(rw,sync,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)

– There must be no space between each cell IP address and its immediate following left parenthesis in the export line. If the NFS server reboots while the cells are writing data to the shared location, the use of the sync option in the export configuration prevents data corruption in the shared location. The use of the no_subtree_check option in the export configuration improves reliability when a subdirectory of a file system is exported.
– As this is only a lab, I only have a single vCD appliance for testing. If a proper production deployment, add additional lines for each appliance IP.

18) Each server in the vCloud Director server group must be allowed to mount the NFS share by inspecting the export list for the NFS export. You export the mount by running exportfs -a to export all NFS shares. To re-export use exportfs -r.

# exportfs -a

– Validate NFS daemons are running on the server by using rpcinfo -p localhost or service nfs status. NFS daemons must be running on the server.

# rpcinfo -p localhost

or

# service nfs status

Configure the Firewall

19) We need to configure the firewall on the NFS server to allow NFS client to access the NFS share. To do that, run the following commands on the NFS server.

# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service mountd

# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service rpc-bind
# firewall-cmd --permanent --add-service nfs
# firewall-cmd --reload

20) That’s it. Now we can deploy the vCloud Director 10.0 appliance(s).

Optional NFS Share Testing

I highly recommend testing the NFS share before continuing with the vCloud DIrector 10.0 appliance deployment. For my testing, I have deployed a temporary CentOS 7 VM, with the same hostname and IP address as my first vCD appliance. I have installed nfs-utils on my test VM.
# yum install -y nfs-utils

OT-1) Check the NFS shares available on the NFS server by running the following command on the test VM. change the IP and share here to your NFS server.

# showmount -e 10.0.0.35

As you can see, my mount on my NFS server is showing one exported list for 10.0.0.38, my only vCD appliance

OT-2) Create a directory on NFS test VM to mount the NFS share /nfsshare/vcloud_director which we have created on the NFS server.

# mkdir -p /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director

OT-3) Use below command to mount the NFS share /nfsshare/vcloud_director from NFS server 10.0.0.35 in /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director on NFS test VM.

# mount 10.0.0.35:/nfsshare/vcloud_director /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director

OT-4) Verify the mounted share on the NFS test VM using mount command.

# mount | grep nfsshare

You can also use the df -hT command to check the mounted NFS share.

# df -hT

OT-5) Next we’ll create a file on the mounted directory to verify the read and write access on NFS share. IMPORTANT** during the vCD appliance deployment, it is expected that this directory is empty, else it could make the deployment fail. Remember to cleanup after the test.

# touch /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director/test

OT-6) Verify the test file exists by using the following command:

# ls -l /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director/

OT-7) Clean your room. Cleanup the directory so that it is ready for the vCD deployment.

# rm /mnt/nfsshare/vcloud_director/test

After successfully testing the share, we now know that we can write to that directory from the vCD appliance IP address, and that we can remove files.




In my next post, I will cover deploying the vCloud Director 10.0 appliance. Stay tuned!

The Home Lab Part 2

The very long over due followup post to my The Home Lab entry made earlier this year.  I did recently purchase another 64GB (2x 32GB) Diamond Black DDR4 memory to bring my server up to 128GB.  I had some old 1TB spinning disks I installed in the box for some extra storage as well, although I will phase them out with more SSDs in the future.  So as a recap, this is my setup now:

IMG_20171117_170133

Motherboard

motherboardSUPERMICRO MBD-X10SDV-TLN4F-O Mini ITX Server Motherboard Xeon processor D-1541 FCBGA 1667 

Newegg

 

Memory

memory

(x2) Black Diamond Memory 64GB (2 x 32GB) 288-Pin DDR4 SDRAM ECC Registered DDR4 2133 (PC4 17000) Server Memory Model BD32GX22133MQR26

                                   Newegg

M.2 SSD

m.2ssd

WD Blue M.2 250GB Internal SSD Solid State Drive – SATA 6Gb/s – WDS250G1B0B

Newegg

SSD

ssd

(x 2) SAMSUNG 850 PRO 2.5″ 512GB SATA III 3D NAND Internal Solid State Drive (SSD) MZ-7KE512BW

Newegg

 

Case

chassis

SUPERMICRO CSE-721TQ-250B Black Mini-Tower Server Case 250W Flex ATX Multi-output Bronze Power Supply

Newegg

 

Additional Storage

x2 1TB Western Digital Black spinning disks

 

Initially when I built the lab, I decided to use VMware workstation, but I recently just rebuilt it, installing ESXi 6.7 as the base.  Largely for better performance and reliability.  For the time being this will be a single host environment, but keeping with the versioning, vCSA and vROps are 6.7 as well.  Can an HTML 5 interface be sexy?  This has come a long way from the flash client days.

vcenter view

I decided against fully configuring this host as a single vSAN node, just so that I can have the extra disk.  However, when I do decide to purchase more hardware and build a second or third box, this setup will allow me to grow my environment, and reconfigure it for vSAN use.  Although I am tempted to ingest the SSDs into my NAS, carve out datastores from it and not use vSAN, at least for the base storage.

storageview

Networking is flat for now, so there’s nothing really to show here.  As I expand and add a second host, I will be looking at some networking hardware, and have my lab in it’s own isolated space.

Now that I am in the professional services space, working with VMware customers, I needed a lab that was more production. I’m still building out the lab so I’ll have more content to come.

The Home Lab Hardware

IMG_20171117_170133

Setup

I decided to go with a Supermicro build as I wanted something power efficient, yet expandable, and this motherboard supports up to 128GB of ECC RDIMM DDR4 2133MHz server grade memory.  Now with this setup, when I feel the need to expand out my lab, I can build two more nodes, and I’ll have a rather nice VSAN cluster.  However I’m hoping the cost of DDR4 memory will have come down by then…

I did look at the Supermicro SYS-E300-8D and SYS-E200-8D style micro servers, but like most, I was concerned about the fan noise, and thus decided to go with a slightly larger chassis to get the larger fan.  Honestly the fan in the unit I bought makes no more noise then a regular desktop computer.

Here’s my hardware:

Motherboard

motherboard

SUPERMICRO MBD-X10SDV-TLN4F-O Mini ITX Server Motherboard Xeon processor D-1541 FCBGA 1667 

Newegg

Memory

memory

Black Diamond Memory 64GB (2 x 32GB) 288-Pin DDR4 SDRAM ECC Registered DDR4 2133 (PC4 17000) Server Memory Model BD32GX22133MQR26

                                   Newegg

M.2 SSD

m.2ssd

WD Blue M.2 250GB Internal SSD Solid State Drive – SATA 6Gb/s – WDS250G1B0B

Newegg

SSD

ssd

(x 2) SAMSUNG 850 PRO 2.5″ 512GB SATA III 3D NAND Internal Solid State Drive (SSD) MZ-7KE512BW

Newegg

Case

chassis

SUPERMICRO CSE-721TQ-250B Black Mini-Tower Server Case 250W Flex ATX Multi-output Bronze Power Supply

Newegg

Who doesn’t love some internal shots after the lab-box has been put together?  🙂

In the coming blog posts, I’ll be building out my lab.  Stay tuned….