This is a continuation of deploying VMware Cloud Director 10. In my last post, I walked through configuring the vSphere lookup service, and adding the vCenter (here). In this post I’ll go over adding a Provider Virtual Data Center (PVDC).
Adding a PVDC
Log into the vCD provider interface, and switch to the Cloud Resources view by clicking the menu to the right of vCloud Director logo. Select the Provider VDCs option in the menu on the left, and then “NEW” link to begin.
On page 1, you’ll have to fill in some general information about the PVDC. Give it a name and description meaningful to the resources the PVDC will be connected to. In this example, I am connecting to my home lab. Click NEXT.
On page 2, select the vCenter and click NEXT.
On page 3, you’ll see the available resources. This would be for both compute and storage. In this example I am using a lab, so I only have one available. Hardware compatibility is also configured here for the future tenants deployed to this PVDC. Click NEXT
On Page 4, the available storage policies configured in the vCenter that the tenants would use in this PVDC, will be available for selection here. Click NEXT.
On Page 5, your mileage may vary depending how your environment is configured. In my lab example, I have chosen the default selection. Click NEXT.
On page 6, you are presented with a confirmation of the selected config. Make any adjustments, and click FINISH.
Be patient as it can take some time to build the PVDC. Just monitor the recent tasks for task progress and completion. The end result should show a “Normal” for a status under the configured Provider VDCs.
At this point, the provider side configuration is almost complete. We still need to configure the public facing address. If this were a production deployment, we also find it necessary to configure a VIP/load balancer to place in front of the VCD appliances to handle traffic load. For production deployments there would also be the need to setup signed certificates for the appliances.
In my next blog I’ll go over configuring the public address.
Day 3 of VMworld 2019 in San Francisco is underway, and it is the second day of General sessions. Clearly today’s theme is Kubernetes, and VMware’s Ray O’Farrell kicked off the keynote by talking about VMware Tanzu and Tanzu’s mission control.
The Keynote then included the integration of NSX-T with Tanzu. The ability to test changes, to see the impact on the environment before going live, was truly amazing
There was also an interesting demo with VMware Horizon and Workspace ONE, showcasing the usage deploying work spaces rapidly from the cloud, and creating zero-trust security policy withing workspace ONE with Carbon Black
Pat jumped up on stage to announce that Ray O’Ferrell (@ray_ofarrell) would be leading VMware’s cloud native apps division, and Greg Lavender (@GregL_VMware) was named the New CTO of VMware.
VMware also announced a limited edition t-shirt that would be given away later that day. VMware had roughly 1000 of these shirts made up, and luckily I was able to get a shirt before they ran out.
Plenty of people were upset about not getting a shirt due to the limited run. Gives a whole new meaning to nerd rage…. (sorry I couldn’t help myself).
The start of VMworld 2019 in San Francisco is underway, and Pat kicked off the general session talking about his excitement for being back in San Francisco, while poking fun at us “Vegas lovers”. Pat also talked about technology, our digital lives, and technologies role being a force for good. He talked about charities, and cancer research foundations.
Pat Then talked about The Law of Unintended Consequences, and how technology has advanced, we as a society have given up certain aspects of Privacy, the need to combat disinformation at scale available widely on the social media platforms.
Surprisingly, according to Pat, Bitcoin is Bad and contributes to the climate crisis.
First Major Announcement with Kubernetes, as VMware has been focussing on containers
Pat then announced the creation of VMware Tanzu, which is the initiative to have a common platform that allows developers to build modern apps, run enterprise Kubernetes, and platform to manage Kubernetes for developers and IT..
Second Major Announcement, Project Pacific. An ambitious project to unite vSphere and Kubernetes for the future of modern IT
Interestingly, Project Pacific was announced to be 30% faster than a traditional Linux VM, and 8% faster than solutions running on bare metal.
Project Pacific brings Kubernetes to the VMware Community, and will be offered by 20K+ Partner resellers, 4K+ Service providers and 1,100+ technology partners.
Tanzu also comes with mission control, a centralized tool allowing IT Operations to manage Kubernetes for developers and IT.
The VMUG leadership invited me to speak at the St. Louis VMUG Usercon on April 18, 2019, and share my presentation on How VMware Home Labs Can Improve Your Professional Growth and Career.
This would be my second time giving a public presentation, but I left The Denver VMUG UserCon with a certain charge, or a spring in my step as it were. I didn’t have a lot of time to prepare or to change up my presentation, remembering that I have a PSO customer that I need to take care of. I arrived a day early for the speaker dinner that was being put on by the St. Louis VMUG leadership.
Prior to the dinner, I was able to explore the historical, and picturesque city of St. Charles.
The next day, we all converged on the convention center for the St. Louis UserCon. This way to success!
Seeing your name as a speaker amongst a list of people you’ve looked forward to meeting, have met, or follow on social media, certainly is humbling.
This time, my session was in the afternoon, so in true fashion of many public speakers in the #vCommunity, I had all day to make tweaks. I was also able to join a few sessions. Finally found my room in the maze of this convention center and got setup.
The ninja, and co-leader of the St. Louis UserCon, Jonathan Stewart (@virtuallyanadmi), managed to take a picture of me giving my presentation.
A special thank you to the St. Louis VMUG leadership team, who invited me out to meet and share with their community: Marc Crawford (@uber_tech_geek), Jonathan Stewart (@virtuallyanadmi) and Mike Masters (@vMikeMast)
This post is a little late, considering the Denver VMUG UserCon was on April 9th, but alas I have been traveling a lot over the past few months
The Denver UserCon was my first time speaking at a public event in front of a large audience. Public speaking is something that I have thought about doing for a while now, and how fitting that my first event, be a year after my very first UserCon attendance, at the very same venue. If I am completely honest, as this was my first time, I was a little nervous, but like anything you just have to take that leap of faith.
My good friend Ariel Sanchez (@arielsanchezmor) has been encouraging me to start this journey, and because this will give me the skills I need for a future role as a marketing engineer, I decided this would be the year to get my feet wet. But what to present?
I’d like to think that most presenters have a blog, that they can reshape into a power point presentation, so I submitted two community sessions. One about vROps, and the other about VMware homelabs. We in the #vCommunity use home labs a lot. Not only our daily use, but to better ourselves professionally. Home labs give us a safe place to experiment with new VMware releases, plan upgrades, and just familiarize ourselves with other products that we may not have a chance to work with in a production environment.
As such, the VMUG community leadership selected my presentation on “How VMware Home labs How a VMware Home lab Can Accelerate Your Career”.
Given the amount of attendees who came to learn and support my first presentation, I’d say that the desire to learn and build a VMware home lab is strong.
I’m not going to lie, as this was my first time, I was certainly nervous. Breath…..count to five……..jump. The presentation was well received, and my friends who joined in support, gave me some positive feedback, along with constructive feedback for improvement.
The evening was capped off with a nice dinner with friends from the #vCommunity.
A special thank you to the Denver VMUG leadership team, who invited me out to meet and share with the community: Jason Valentine (@JasonV_VCP5), Tony Gonzalez (@vGonzilla) and Scott Seifert (@vScottSeifert)
The Convergence Tool basically takes the external PSC and embeds it into the vCenter appliance like so:
For this customer, I had three vCSA’s and three PSC’s that I needed to converge. Most of the blogs that I found didn’t cover PSC’s that were joined to a domain, environments with multiple vCenters, or with multiple PSC’s, so I thought I would write this up in a blog.
Planning the Convergence
The first thing I had to do was take note of any registered services with the SSO domain. I utilized VMware’s KB2043509 to identify these services, which I had none to worry about. VMware specifically calls out NSX and Site Recovery Manager (SRM), but since those were not in use at this customer, the only things I had to worry about were Horizon, vROps, vRLi and Zerto. Each of these services registered directly to the vCenters, so I had nothing to worry about there. If I had any services registered with the SSO domain, I’d simply need to re-register them once the convergence tool was ran. But since this didn’t apply, I can move forward with configuring the scripts for the convergence tool.
I also need to have an understanding of the replication typology of the existing SSO domain. VMware KB2127057 was an excellent resource I used to gather that information. Opening a putting session to a vCenter, and running the ‘vdcrepadmin’ command against each of the external PSCs, I was able to see the following:
I can see they already have a ring topology, which is the desired architecture. If I were to draw the SSO typology out, it would look something like:
Setting Up the JSON Templates for the Convergence Tool
The converge.json template that the convergence tool uses, can be found in the VMware VCSA ISO, that was used for the 6.7 Update 1 upgrade, under the following path: DVD Drive (#):\VMware VCSA\vcsa-converge-cli\templates\
To make my life easier, I copied the contents of the entire ISO to a folder on the root of my C drive. I then made a seperate folder on the root of C called converge, and created a folder for each of the three vCenters I’d be working with: vCenter-A, vCenter-B, vCenter-C. I made a copy of the converge.json, and placed it into each folder.
Taking a look at the converge.json for vCenter-A, the template tells you what data needs to be filled in, so pay close attention. Lines 10 – 15 needs entries for the ESXi host where the vCenter resides, or the managing vCenter appliance. Here I chose the option to used the Managing ESXi host. All I needed to do, was look in vSphere to see where the vCSA appliance VM resided on which host. While there, I also set the Cluster DRS settings to manual, to prevent the VMs from moving during the upgrade. Once I obtained the information needed, I completed that portion of the json. (I’ve redacted environment specific information).
Lines 16 – 21 need data entries for the first vCenter appliance (vCenter-A) to be converged. Here I need the FQDN for vCenter-A, for the Username, I need the email@example.com account, its password, and the root password of the appliance.
Lines 22 – 33 would be filled out IF the Platform Services Controller (PSC) appliance is joined to the domain. My customer was joined to the domain, so I needed to fill this section out. Otherwise you can remove this section from the JSON.
Now, because this is the first vCenter of three, in the same SSO domain, for the first convergence, I did not need this section, because the first vCenter does not have a partner yet. It will be needed however, on the second (vCenter-B) and third (vCenter-C) convergences.
Now I need to fill out a second and third converge.json file for the second and third convergence, saving each in its respective folder. For vCenter-B and vCenter-C, for the partner hostname on line 32, I used the FQDN of the first converged vCenter (vCenter-A), as that is the first partner of the SSO domain.
For vCenter-A, the first to be converged, the completed converge.json looks like this (take note of the commas, brackets and lines removed):
For the second convergence (vCenter-B), and third convergence (vCenter-C), the completed converge.json looks like this:
Now that we got the converge.json done for each of the vCenters, we can work on the decommission.json.
Here is the template VMware provides in the same directory:
Lines 11 – 15 require impute for the Managing vCenter or ESXi Host of the External PSC. Again, just like the vCenter, I used the ESXi host that the PSC is running on.
Lines 16 – 21 needs data for the Platform Services Controller that will be Decommissioned.
Lines 30 – 34 requires information for the vCenter the PSC was paired with. Again here I just used the ESXi host that the vCenter is currently running on
Lines 35 – 39 require the information for the vCenter, the PSC is paired with.
Now that we have the decommission.json filled out for the first vCenter (vCenter-A), I have to repeat the process for the second and third vCenters (vCenter-B, vCenter-C). The full decommission.json should look like
Now that both the converge.json and decommission.json have been filled out for each of my environments (3), and stored in the same directory on the root of C, I can move forward with the Convergence process.
Prerequisites and Considerations Before Starting the Convergence Process
The converge tool only supports the VCSA and PSC 6.7 Update 1. All nodes must be on 6.7 Update 1 before converting.
If you are currently running a Windows vCenter Server or PSC, you must migrate to the appliance first.
Before converting, take a backups of your VCSA(s) and PSCs in the vSphere SSO domain(VM snapshots, and DB backups).
Know all other solutions using the PSC for authentication in the environment. They will need to be re-registered after the convergence completes and before decommissioning.
A machine on a routable network which can communicate with the VCSA and PSC will be used to run the convergence and decommission process.
Set the DRS Automation Level to manual, and the Migration Threshold to conservative. There will be be issues if the VCSA being converged is moved during the process.
If VCHA is enabled, it must be disabled prior to running the convergence process.
The converge process will handle PSC HA load balancers. Make sure you point to the VIP in the JSON template if you have them.
All vSphere SSO data is migrated with the exception of local OS users.
Best to take snapshots of the vCSA and external PSC VMs before continuing. We’ve already backed up the database, but it doesn’t hurt to have snapshots as well.
Executing the Converge Tool
Now that converge.json template for each vCenter (vCenter-A, vCenter-B, vCenter-C) is filled out properly, we can now execute. We will run the convergence tool against the first vCenter (vCenter-A). Note: We can only run the converge tool against one vCSA at a time.
In powershell, we can first run the following command before proceeding with the upgrade to see what options/parameters are available with the converge tool.
Once the process successfully completes, move onto the next PSC. Repeat the process until all PSC’s have been decommissioned.
Validate the SSO Replication Topology After the Converge Process
If you’ll remember, when I setup the converge.json, I had the second vCenter (vCenter-B) and third vCenter (vCenter-C) replication partner set to the first converged vCenter (vCenter-A). My Replication topology currently looks like this:
I needed to close the loop between vCenter-B and vCenter-C. Using VMware’s KB2127057 , I used the ‘createagreement’ parameter. I opened a putty session to vCenter-B and ran the following command:
Now that the SSO replication agreement has been made between vCenter-B and vCenter-C, my replication topology looks like this:
I’m not going to lie, the hardest part of using the convergence tool, was just getting started. I’ve been through enough fires in my day to know how bad of a time I would have had if something went wrong, and I lost either the vCenter, or external PSC before the convergence successfully completed. Once I got myself beyond that mental hurdle, the process was actually quite easy and smooth.
I know I’ve left this customer’s environment in a lot better shape than I found it, and having embedded PSCs will make future vCenter upgrades a breeze. For a VMware PSO consultant, this was a huge value add for the customer.
I recently wrapped up a vSphere 6.7 U1 upgrade project, while on a VMware Professional Services (PSO) engagement, with a customer in Denver Colorado. On this project, I had to upgrade their three VMware environments from 6.5, to 6.7 Update 1. This customer also had three external Platform Services Controllers (PSC), a configuration that is now depreciated in VMware architecture.
Check the VMware Interoperability, and Compatibility Matrices
The first thing I needed to do, was to take inventory of the customer’s environment. I needed to know how many vCenters, if they had external Platform Services Controllers, how many hosts, vSphere Distributed Switch (VDS), and what the versions were.
From my investigation, this customer had three vCenters, and three external platform services controllers (PSC), all apart of the same SSO domain.
I also made note of which vCenter was paired with what external PSO. This information is critical not only for the vSphere 6.7 U1 upgrade, but also the convergence process that I will be doing in part two of this blog series.
Looking at the customer’s ESXi hosts, the majority were running the same ESXi 6.5 build, but I did find a few Nutanix clusters, and six ESXi hosts still on version 5.5.
The customer had multiple vSphere Distributed Switch (VDS) that needed to be upgraded to 6.5 before the 6.7 upgrade.
The second thing that I needed to do was to look at the model of each ESXi host and determine if it is supported for the vSphere 6.7 U1 upgrade. I also need to validate the firmware and BIOS each host is using, to see if I need to have the customer upgrade the firmware and BIOS of the hosts. We’ll plug this information into the VMware Compatibility Guide .
From my investigation, the three ESXi hosts running ESXi 5.5 were not compatible with 6.7U1, however they were compatible with the current build of ESXi 6.5 the customer was running on their other hosts. I would need to upgrade these hosts to ESXi 6.5 before starting the vSphere 6.7 U1 upgrade.
This customer had a mix of Dell and Cisco UCS hosts, and almost all needed to have their firmware and BIOS upgraded to be compatible with ESXi 6.7 U1.
The third thing I needed to check was to see what other platforms, owned by VMware, and/or bolt on third parties, that I needed to worry about for this upgrade.
The customer is using a later version of VMware’s Horizon solution, and luckily for me, it is compatible with vSphere 6.7 U1, so no worries there.
The customer has Zerto 6.0 deployed, and unfortunately it needed to be upgraded to a compatible version.
The customer has Actifio backup solution, but that is also running a compatible version, so again no need to update it.
Lets Get those ESXi 5.5 hosts Upgraded to 6.5
I needed to schedule an outage with the customer, as they had three offsite locations, with two ESXi 5.5 hosts each. These hosts were using local storage to house and run the VMs, so even though they were in a host cluster, HA was not an option, and the VMs would need to be powered off.
Once I had the outage secured, I was able to move forward with upgrading these six hosts to ESXi 6.5.
Time to Upgrade the vSphere Distributed Switch (VDS)
For this portion of the upgrade, I only needed to upgrade the customers VDS’s to 6.5. This portion of the upgrade was fast, and I was able to do it mid day without the customer experiencing an outage. We did submit a formal maintenance request for visibility, and CYA. Total upgrade time to do all of their VDS’s was less than 15 minutes. Each switch took roughly a minute.
Upgrade the External Platform Services Controllers Before the vCenter Appliances
Now that I had all hosts to a compatible ESXi 6.5 version, I can move forward with the upgrade. I was able to do this upgrade during the day, as the customer would only lose the ability to manage their VMs using the vCenters. I made backups of the PSC and vCSA databases, and created snapshots of the VMs just in case.
I first needed to upgrade the external PSCs (3) to 6.7 U1, so I simply attached the vCSA.iso to my jump VM, and launched the .exe. I did this process one PSC at a time until they were all upgraded to 6.7 U1.
Upgrade the vCenter Appliances to 6.7 Update 1
Now that the external platform services controllers are on 6.7 U1, it is time to upgrade the vCenters. The process is the same with the exe, so I just did one vCenter at a time. Both the external PSC’s and the vCSA’s upgraded without issue, and within a couple of hours both the external PSC’s and vCSA’s had finished the vSphere 6.7 Update 1.
Upgrade Compatible ESXi Hosts to 6.7 Update 1
I really wanted to use the now embedded VMware Update Manager (VUM), but I either faced users who re-attached ISO’s to their Horizon VMs, or had administrators who were upgrading/installing VMware Tools. In one cluster I even happened to find a host that had improper networking configured compared to its peers in the cluster. Once I got all of that out of the way, I was able to schedule VUM to work its way down through each cluster, and upgrade the ESXi hosts to 6.7 Update 1. There were still some fringe cases where VUM wouldn’t work as intended, and I needed to do one host at a time.
Conclusion for the Upgrade
In the end, upgrading the customer’s three environments, vCSA, PSC and ESXi to 6.7 Update 1 took me about a couple of weeks to do alone. Not too shabby considering I finished ahead of schedule, even with all of the issues I faced. After the upgrade, the customer started having their Cisco UCS blades purple screen at random. After opening a case with GSS, that week Cisco came out with an emergency patch for the fnic driver, on the customer’s UCS blades, for the very issue they were facing. The customer was able to quickly patch the blades. Talk about good timing.
Part 2 Incoming
Part 2 of this series will focus on using the vCenter Converge Tool. Stay tuned.
It’s that time of year again. I’m honored and humbled to continue to be apart of the VMware vExpert program. This program challenges me every day to continue to learn, and contribute to the #vCommunity. For me, this isn’t just some title. This is a family of community warriors where we learn from and help each other grow. Everyone in some way gives back to the community. This year, I am also excited to try my hand at public speaking, and give back to the VMUG community as a community session speaker. I don’t think that I would have had the courage to apply to be a speaker, if it wasn’t for my fellow vExperts encouraging me to do so.
This blog series assumes that the reader has some understanding of how to create a vRealize Operations Manager (vROps) dashboard.
vROps dashboards are made up of what is called widgets. These widgets can either be configured as “self providers”, or can be populated with data by a “parent” widget. Self provider widgets, are configured to individually show specific data. In other words, one widget shows hosts, another shows datastores, and another showing virtual machines, however the widgets will not interact, nor are they dependent of each other. Parent widgets, are configured to provide data from a specific source, and then feed it into other child widgets on the page. This is useful when data is desired to be displayed in different formats of consumption. The dashboard I configured called “vSphere DRS Cluster Health”, does just that. I will break the widgets down to different sections as I walk through the configuration.
Widget #1 – This widget is known as an “object list“, and will be the parent widget of this dashboard. In other words, widgets #2 through #6 rely on the data presented by widget #1. In this case I have the object list widget, configured to show/list the different host clusters in my homelab.
I have given it a title, set refresh content to ON, set the mode to PARENT, and have it set to auto select the first row. In the lower left section “Select which tags to filter”, I have created an environment group in vROps called “Cluster Compute Resource” where I have specified my host clusters. In the lower right box, I have a few metrics selected which I would also like this “object list” widget to show.
This is just a single esxi homelab, so this won’t look as grand as it would if it were to be configured for a production environment. But each object in this list is select-able, and the cool thing is that each object in this list, when it is selected, will change the other widgets.
Widgets #2 and #3 are called “health charts”. I have one configured with the metric for cluster CPU workload %, and the other configured with the metric cluster memory workload %. Both configurations are the same, with the exception that one has a custom metric of Cluster CPU Workload %, and the other is configured with the custom metric of Cluster Memory Workload %. I have both configured to show data for the past 24hrs.
Important: For these two widgets, under “widget interactions“, set both to the first widget: DRS Cluster Settings (Select a cluster to populate charts)
Widgets #4 and #5 are called “View widgets”. One is configured to show the current Cluster CPU Demand, and the other is configured to show the current Cluster Memory Demand. These are also configured to forecast out for 30 days, so that we can potentially see if the clusters will run short of capacity in the near future, allowing us the ability to add more compute to the cluster preemptively.
These are two custom “views” I created. I will go over how to create custom views in a future post, but for those who already know how, I have one “widget view” configured with each.
Important: For these two widgets, under “widget interactions“, set both to the first widget: ” DRS Cluster Settings (Select a cluster to populate charts) ” like we did above.
Widget #6 is another “Object List” widget, and I have this configured to show only host systems, of the selected cluster in Widget #1. Widget #6 will be used to provide data to Widgets #7 and #8.
I also have certain Host System metrics selected here so that I can get high level information of the hosts in the cluster.
Important: For these two widgets, under “widget interactions“, set both to the first widget: ” DRS Cluster Settings (Select a cluster to populate charts)” like we did above.
The final two widgets, #7 and #8, are also called “health chart” widgets. One is configured using the metric host system CPU workload %, and the other is configured using the metric host system Memory workload %. I have both configured to show data for the past 24hrs.
Important: For these two widgets, under “widget interactions“, set both to widget #6, in this example: Host Workload (select a host to populate charts to the right).
A few weeks ago, I had a customer ask me about creating a custom vROPs dashboard for them, so that they could monitor the health of the clusters. For those of you who were unaware, VMware has packaged vROPs with a widget called “DRS Cluster Settings”, that does something similar, and look like this:
The idea behind this widget, is that it will list all clusters attached to the vCenter, giving you high level information such as the DRS setting, and the memory and CPU workload of the cluster. With a cluster selected, in the lower window you will see all of the ESXi hosts apart of that cluster, with their CPU and memory workloads as well. If you are interested in this widget, it can be added when creating a new custom dashboard, and you will find it at the bottom of the available widget list.
While this widget gave me some high level detail, it wasn’t exactly what I wanted, so I decided to create my own to give a deeper level of detail. I used the widget above as a template, and went from there.
This dashboard gives me the current memory and CPU workloads for each cluster in the upper left box, and once a cluster selected, it populates the right, and two middle boxes with data. The top right boxes gives me the memory and CPU workload for the past 24hrs, and the two middle boxes gives me the CPU demand and memory demand forecasts for the next 30 days.
Much like the widget mentioned above, by selecting a cluster in the upper left side, in the lower left side there is a box that will populate with all hosts attached to that cluster. Once a host is selected, in the lower right box, we also get a memory and CPU workload for the past 24hrs for the selected host. This dashboard is slightly larger than a page will allow, so unfortunately users would need to scroll down to see all of the data, but I believe it gives an outstanding birds-eye view of the clusters DRS capabilities.
In my next blog post, I’ll break down what’s involved in creating this dashboard.